The National Sovereignty, Border Development and Integration Department is in charge of monitoring the maritime boundary delimitation treaties. This involves surveillance regarding fulfillment of bilateral treaties and, in coordination with the relevant entities, ensuring the exercise of Colombia's sovereignty over its territorial waters and the surrounding air space by the pertinent authorities. Likewise, it involves the furtherance of integration and good neighborhood policies and actions with the countries with which Colombia shares its borders.
Colombia established its maritime boundaries with neighboring countries through seven (7) agreements on the Caribbean Sea (Costa Rica, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Nicaragua, the Dominican Republic and Panama) and three (3) on the Pacific Ocean (Costa Rica, Ecuador y Panama).
Treaties on maritime boundaries, both on the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean are, in chronological order of signing:
- 1928: Esguerra-Barcenas Treaty on Territorial Issues between Colombia and Nicaragua and Exchange of Notes of 1930. (See map)
- 1975: Lievano-Lucio Agreement with the Republic of Ecuador. (See map).
- 1976: Lievano-Boyd Treaty with the Republic of Panama. (See map).
- 1977: Fernandez-Facio Treaty with the Republic of Costa Rica on the Caribbean Sea. (Pending ratification by Costa Rica). (See map).
- 1978: Lievano-Ramirez Agreement with the Dominican Republic. (See map)
- 1978: Lievano Brutus Agreement with the Republic of Haiti. (See map).
- 1984: Lloreda-Gutierrez Treaty with the Republic of Costa Rica on the Pacific Ocean (See map).
- 1986: Ramirez-Lopez Treaty with the Republic of Honduras. (See map), and
- 1993: Sanin-Robertson Treaty with Jamaica (See map).
Concurrently, Colombia continued making progress on maritime-related matters, issuing Law 10 of 1978 which sets out regulations regarding Territorial Waters, the Exclusive Economic Zone and the Continental Platform, thus incorporating the new law of the sea into national legislation. Subsequently, Law 1436, issued in 1984, set the Straight Baselines used to measure the maritime areas established in the Law of the Sea.
OTHER NOTEWORTHY BILATERAL SOVEREIGNTY AGREEMENTS.
- Maritime Issues between Colombia and the United States of America:
“Treaty between the Government of the Republic of Colombia and the Government of the United States of America concerning the status of Quitasueño, Roncador and. Serrana". Signed at Bogota, Colombia, on September 18, 1972, by Plenipotentiaries ALFREDO VASQUEZ CARRIZOSA of Colombia and LEONARD J. SACCIO of the United States of America.
One of the duties of the Territorial Sovereignty and Border Development Department is coordination, with the respective authorities, of the procedure involving authorization requests for other countries' State aircraft to fly through Colombian airspace, as well as requests by Colombian State aircraft intending to enter the air space of other countries, in compliance with both international and national regulations on the matter.
- Antarctic Issues
Colombia acceded to the Antarctic Treaty through Law 67 of 1988. Antarctic issues have acquired great significance on the international agenda, due to their importance for scientific research to study phenomena affecting the entire world, such as global warming and climate change, as well as other geostrategic issues. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs promotes the matter of the Antarctic before national entities and public opinion by means of different activities, such as the involvement, thanks to the cooperation of the Government of Ecuador, in a scientific expedition organized by this neighboring country on the Antarctic continent early this year.